_____________ includes risk of loss from uniform political and government issues.

_____________ includes risk of loss from uniform political and government issues.


A. Political Risk
B. International Finance
C. Imperfect Market
D. Foreign Exchange risk

The Correct Answer Is:

  • A. Political Risk

The correct answer is A. Political Risk.

Why A (Political Risk) is the Correct Answer:

Political risk refers to the risk of loss resulting from political and government issues that can impact a country’s economic environment and the operations of foreign businesses or investors. Here’s a detailed explanation of why A is the correct answer:

1. Definition of Political Risk:

Political risk encompasses a wide range of potential challenges and uncertainties related to a country’s political landscape. It can include factors such as changes in government policies, regulations, trade restrictions, political instability, civil unrest, expropriation of assets, and government actions that may affect foreign investors or businesses.

2. Uniform Political and Government Issues:

Political risk covers both uniform and specific issues related to political and government actions. Uniform issues are those that can affect a broad range of businesses and investors operating within a particular country. These issues often stem from changes in government policies or regulations that apply universally, impacting various sectors of the economy.

3. Examples of Political Risk Factors:

    • Policy Changes: Governments may implement new policies or regulations that affect the profitability or feasibility of certain industries or investments. For example, changes in tax laws, environmental regulations, or trade tariffs can impact businesses.
    • Political Instability: Political instability, including protests, demonstrations, or political conflicts, can disrupt business operations and create an uncertain environment for investors.
    • Expropriation: Governments may seize or expropriate foreign-owned assets, such as factories or natural resources, without adequate compensation.
    • Currency Controls: Governments may impose currency controls or restrictions on the repatriation of profits or capital, affecting the ability to convert local currency into foreign currency.

4. Mitigation Strategies:

Businesses and investors often employ various strategies to mitigate political risk, such as diversifying their investments across multiple countries, purchasing political risk insurance, and conducting thorough political risk assessments before entering a new market.

Why the Other Options are Not Correct:

B. International Finance:

International finance refers to the study and management of financial activities and transactions that involve entities in different countries. While political risk can be a component of international finance, it is not an equivalent term. Political risk specifically relates to political and government issues that can affect financial activities.

C. Imperfect Market:

An imperfect market generally refers to a market that does not meet the conditions of perfect competition, such as the presence of monopolies, information asymmetry, or barriers to entry. While political risk can certainly affect market conditions, they are distinct concepts. Imperfect market conditions may be one consequence of political risk, but they are not synonymous.

D. Foreign Exchange Risk:

Foreign exchange risk, also known as currency risk, is the risk of financial loss due to fluctuations in exchange rates when conducting transactions in foreign currencies. It is related to the volatility of exchange rates and the impact on the value of financial assets denominated in different currencies.

While foreign exchange risk is a significant concern in international finance, it does not encompass the broader range of political and government issues covered by political risk.

In summary, the correct answer is A (Political Risk) because it accurately represents the risk of loss resulting from uniform political and government issues that can affect foreign businesses, investors, and economic environments. The other options either represent different concepts or are narrower in scope compared to the comprehensive nature of political risk.

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