Looking for the answer to the question below related to Financial Management ?
Balance of payment Identity equation ______________
|A. FA + RA + CA =0
B. RA + CA+ FA = 0
C. CA + FA+ RA = 0
D. CA + FA = 0
The Correct Answer Is:
- C. CA + FA+ RA = 0
The correct answer is option C. CA + FA + RA = 0 for the Balance of Payments (BoP) identity equation. This equation represents a fundamental principle in international economics and accounting, ensuring that a country’s transactions with the rest of the world are balanced.
Let’s delve into why this is the correct option and then explore why the other options are not accurate representations of the BoP identity equation.
Correct Answer: C. CA + FA + RA = 0
1. Current Account (CA):
The “CA” represents the current account, which includes trade in goods and services, income earned from investments, and unilateral transfers (gifts, aid, etc.). This account measures a country’s net income from international trade and investments.
If a country exports more goods and services than it imports, it runs a current account surplus; if imports exceed exports, there is a deficit. The CA can be positive or negative depending on the trade balance.
2. Financial Account (FA):
The “FA” accounts for financial transactions, including foreign direct investment (FDI), portfolio investment, and changes in reserves. A positive financial account balance indicates that a country is attracting more investment than it is investing abroad, while a negative balance suggests the opposite.
3. Reserves Account (RA):
The “RA” covers changes in a country’s foreign exchange reserves. This account reflects any adjustments made to a country’s official reserves, often to balance the current and financial accounts. A positive RA indicates an increase in reserves, while a negative RA represents a decrease.
The BoP identity equation states that the sum of these three accounts (CA + FA + RA) must equal zero. This equilibrium principle ensures that all monetary transactions between a country and the rest of the world are accounted for without any gaps or overlaps.
If the current account is in surplus (CA > 0), there must be corresponding deficits in the financial account (FA < 0) and/or the reserves account (RA < 0) to maintain balance.
Now, let’s explore why the other options are not correct:
A. FA + RA + CA = 0:
This equation incorrectly places the financial account before the current account. The correct order is CA (current account) first, followed by FA (financial account), and then RA (reserves account). Changing the order of the accounts in the equation would not accurately represent the balance between a country’s international transactions.
B. RA + CA + FA = 0:
This option rearranges the order of the accounts in a way that does not align with the standard BoP identity equation. Placing the reserves account before the current account disrupts the logic of how these accounts interact to maintain balance. The correct order is CA + FA + RA.
D. CA + FA = 0:
This option simplifies the BoP identity equation to only include the current account (CA) and the financial account (FA). While these two accounts are essential components of the BoP, they do not account for changes in a country’s foreign exchange reserves, which are covered by the reserves account (RA).
Excluding the reserves account from the equation would result in an incomplete representation of a country’s international transactions.
In conclusion, option C (CA + FA + RA = 0) is the correct representation of the Balance of Payments identity equation. It accurately reflects the equilibrium principle that ensures all monetary transactions between a country and the rest of the world are balanced.
The other options either reorder the accounts incorrectly or omit the reserves account, which does not adhere to the standard BoP accounting principles. Understanding the BoP identity equation is essential for analyzing a country’s international economic transactions and assessing its overall financial position in the global economy.